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Inside India was published in 1937 after Edib had spent twelve years in exile and seven years after she had published The Turkish Ordeal. The Halide Edib who travels to India is a mature woman over the age of fifty. Her voice is confident and scholarly. In her memoirs we have a steady progression from the domestic to the public, from the maternal to the paternal, from over-identifying with the maternal to over-identifying with the paternal. The Halide Edib who wrote Inside India, at least as she represents herself, is a woman who was able to synthesize the semiotic and symbolic without becoming an extremist. She has made peace with her mother and she has risen to the stature of the father in the symbolic not by rejecting her mother but rather by making peace with her. If she found surrogate mothers in Anatolia, in India she finds surrogate daughters.

Halide Edib’s Memoirs and The Turkish Ordeal simply begin on page one. Neither book has a preface or an introduction. The reader has to get through several layers before reaching the narrative Inside India. Halide Edib frames Inside India with a preface and an introduction. The author is concerned about the reader’s interpretation of information she provides. In the preface, Edib frames for us her gaze of whose limitations she is well aware: “The conclusions I have reached may not be right. What I say about India need not be the truth as the Indians themselves see it, but it is the truth as I see and believe. ” Mary Louise Pratt argues convincingly in Imperial Eyes: Travel Writing and Transculturation that travel books written by Europeans about non-Europeans created the “imperial” order at home. Pratt’s work explores the contribution of travel books, even seemingly innocent ones such as the intersection of Linneaus’ travel writing and plant classification system and formations of subjectivities, in light of imperial projects. Inside India allows us to examine how a non-European traveler negotiates travel and the formation of subjectivity in the absence of an imperial project. Halide Edib is not part of a foreign imperial conquering race that has come to experience an exotic land and she is not a male. She is forthright about what she knows about India and how it might impact her gaze. Halide Edib as an older Muslim woman has access to women in purdah and she often stays in the women’s section of households that continue to practice purdah, but she does not exoticize purdah or dwell on it. The occult only merits a passing sentence. She is invited to participate in an event involving the occult and she declines to do so.

In the introduction Halide Edib tells us about all her encounters with India and Indians preceding her arrival in India. She has met India in the fantastic tales of her childhood and the stories of her English governess. She has met Indians who came to help the Ottoman armies returning from devastating wars. She has met Indian soldiers who came to the Ottoman Empire as part of the British armies. She has encountered many contrasting Indias and Indians. They do not form a coherent image.

The title of the book itself, Inside India, suggests many different possibilities. Indeed the first section of the book is titled “India through Dr. Ansari’s house. ” However, Dr. Ansari’s home is not simply a domestic space. His home functions as a bridge between the inside and outside and between people of different political persuasions, races, genders, and nationalities. Gandhi and Lord Irwin have had meetings in this home. The shadow cabinet has met here. East and West have met in the drawing room of this house. Edib meets well-known women and politically active women from East and West here. But even this house has its secluded areas and as an older Muslim woman Halide Edib belongs to a small minority that has access to the apartments of Begam Ansari who chooses to maintain purdah. The only man Begam Ansari sees other than her relatives is Gandhi. Halide Edib identifies with Begam Ansari and her adopted daughter Zohra. The author respects Begam Ansari’s choice to remain in purdah and not to stand in the way of Zohra’s emancipation. Halide Edib envies Zohra and Begam Ansari’s relationship. The author finds that Zohra with one foot in the past and the other in the future is facing the same difficulties that she faced as a young woman but that, unlike herself, Zohra has a mother to guide her through this difficult stage. Edib’s admiration for what she perceives as the flexibility of Indian Muslims with regard to women’s position is evident throughout the book. She appreciates the fact that women are allowed to decide for themselves whether they should remain in purdah or not. Halide Edib comments on the top-down modernization effort in the Republic of Turkey, which included clothing reform by banning veiling and scarves in Turkey. It is in Chapter Three that she makes her thoughts on women in India clear and, in an interesting way, she also comments on women that Kristeva might have classified as having overly identified with the paternal.

Inside India was published in 1937 after Edib had spent twelve years in exile and seven years after she had published The Turkish Ordeal. The Halide Edib who travels to India is a mature woman over the age of fifty. Her voice is confident and scholarly. In her memoirs we have a steady progression from the domestic to the public, from the maternal to the paternal, from over-identifying with the maternal to over-identifying with the paternal. The Halide Edib who wrote Inside India, at least as she represents herself, is a woman who was able to synthesize the semiotic and symbolic without becoming an extremist. She has made peace with her mother and she has risen to the stature of the father in the symbolic not by rejecting her mother but rather by making peace with her. If she found surrogate mothers in Anatolia, in India she finds surrogate daughters.

Inside India was published in 1937 after Edib had spent twelve years in exile and seven years after she had published The Turkish Ordeal. The Halide Edib who travels to India is a mature woman over the age of fifty. Her voice is confident and scholarly. In her memoirs we have a steady progression from the domestic to the public, from the maternal to the paternal, from over-identifying with the maternal to over-identifying with the paternal. The Halide Edib who wrote Inside India, at least as she represents herself, is a woman who was able to synthesize the semiotic and symbolic without becoming an extremist. She has made peace with her mother and she has risen to the stature of the father in the symbolic not by rejecting her mother but rather by making peace with her. If she found surrogate mothers in Anatolia, in India she finds surrogate daughters.

Inside India was published in 1937 after Edib had spent twelve years in exile and seven years after she had published The Turkish Ordeal. The Halide Edib who travels to India is a mature woman over the age of fifty. Her voice is confident and scholarly. In her memoirs we have a steady progression from the domestic to the public, from the maternal to the paternal, from over-identifying with the maternal to over-identifying with the paternal. The Halide Edib who wrote Inside India, at least as she represents herself, is a woman who was able to synthesize the semiotic and symbolic without becoming an extremist. She has made peace with her mother and she has risen to the stature of the father in the symbolic not by rejecting her mother but rather by making peace with her. If she found surrogate mothers in Anatolia, in India she finds surrogate daughters.

Halide Edib’s Memoirs and The Turkish Ordeal simply begin on page one. Neither book has a preface or an introduction. The reader has to get through several layers before reaching the narrative Inside India. Halide Edib frames Inside India with a preface and an introduction. The author is concerned about the reader’s interpretation of information she provides. In the preface, Edib frames for us her gaze of whose limitations she is well aware: “The conclusions I have reached may not be right. What I say about India need not be the truth as the Indians themselves see it, but it is the truth as I see and believe. ” Mary Louise Pratt argues convincingly in Imperial Eyes: Travel Writing and Transculturation that travel books written by Europeans about non-Europeans created the “imperial” order at home. Pratt’s work explores the contribution of travel books, even seemingly innocent ones such as the intersection of Linneaus’ travel writing and plant classification system and formations of subjectivities, in light of imperial projects. Inside India allows us to examine how a non-European traveler negotiates travel and the formation of subjectivity in the absence of an imperial project. Halide Edib is not part of a foreign imperial conquering race that has come to experience an exotic land and she is not a male. She is forthright about what she knows about India and how it might impact her gaze. Halide Edib as an older Muslim woman has access to women in purdah and she often stays in the women’s section of households that continue to practice purdah, but she does not exoticize purdah or dwell on it. The occult only merits a passing sentence. She is invited to participate in an event involving the occult and she declines to do so.

In the introduction Halide Edib tells us about all her encounters with India and Indians preceding her arrival in India. She has met India in the fantastic tales of her childhood and the stories of her English governess. She has met Indians who came to help the Ottoman armies returning from devastating wars. She has met Indian soldiers who came to the Ottoman Empire as part of the British armies. She has encountered many contrasting Indias and Indians. They do not form a coherent image.

The title of the book itself, Inside India, suggests many different possibilities. Indeed the first section of the book is titled “India through Dr. Ansari’s house. ” However, Dr. Ansari’s home is not simply a domestic space. His home functions as a bridge between the inside and outside and between people of different political persuasions, races, genders, and nationalities. Gandhi and Lord Irwin have had meetings in this home. The shadow cabinet has met here. East and West have met in the drawing room of this house. Edib meets well-known women and politically active women from East and West here. But even this house has its secluded areas and as an older Muslim woman Halide Edib belongs to a small minority that has access to the apartments of Begam Ansari who chooses to maintain purdah. The only man Begam Ansari sees other than her relatives is Gandhi. Halide Edib identifies with Begam Ansari and her adopted daughter Zohra. The author respects Begam Ansari’s choice to remain in purdah and not to stand in the way of Zohra’s emancipation. Halide Edib envies Zohra and Begam Ansari’s relationship. The author finds that Zohra with one foot in the past and the other in the future is facing the same difficulties that she faced as a young woman but that, unlike herself, Zohra has a mother to guide her through this difficult stage. Edib’s admiration for what she perceives as the flexibility of Indian Muslims with regard to women’s position is evident throughout the book. She appreciates the fact that women are allowed to decide for themselves whether they should remain in purdah or not. Halide Edib comments on the top-down modernization effort in the Republic of Turkey, which included clothing reform by banning veiling and scarves in Turkey. It is in Chapter Three that she makes her thoughts on women in India clear and, in an interesting way, she also comments on women that Kristeva might have classified as having overly identified with the paternal.

The chapter titled “Sorojini Naidu and Other Indian Women” captures her thoughts on women’s emancipation and the condition of women in India, which are reemphasized throughout the book with her comments about encounters with women and women’s clubs. In Salam House there are two other women guests; one of them is Sarojini Naidu, “the foremost Indian woman of the present day, the best known Eastern woman in politics. ” In many ways, based on the description of Naidu provided by men, Naidu is the Kristevan revolutionary woman who is more fanatic than any man, the woman who has over-identified with the paternal. The male head of the Chicago Forum says to Edib: “I always believed India to have a meek and submissive spirit, but Mrs. Naidu upset my notion. ” Edib takes the time to point out that this woman has many dimensions and moods. The Mrs. Naidu Edib describes is a well-rounded person and what he has seen is only one dimension. To Halide Edib she is a woman of many moods, sometimes cruel, sometimes tender; aggressive in pursuit of nationalism and in expressing it and yet capable of a universality of spirit, a comprehension of humanity. Indian men call her Akka, older sister. Perhaps the question should be whether the flaw is in the way she is being perceived by the head of the Chicago Forum. Is Mrs. Naidu perceived as being overly strident because she does not adhere to his stereotypes about India and Indian women? Through Mrs. Naidu, Halide Edib meets many other women of all castes, religions, and ethnicities in the Ansari drawing room. She meets nationalists, reformers, teachers, and students. She is delighted that women of different backgrounds can come together. She is impressed with Begam Mohammad Ali, who “will not be hustled. She wants change, but in her own good time. ” Halide Edib also met with the Purdah Club. She is brutal with them, not about Purdah but about being good citizens and doing good for their community: “What do you mean I thought by dressing so beautifully and sitting idle instead of helping, working, teaching. … And all this costly food. … Why, they could calculate the weekly cost, and spend it on providing meals for the poorer students of Jamia.

Although Halide Edib may have placed herself firmly in the symbolic in this book, she also valorizes female space in it. That Halide Edib has made peace with the maternal and female space is evident on many levels in Chapter One and emphasized throughout the rest of the book. In the first section of Inside India, Halide Edib delights in describing the gardens, the animals, and the people she encounters but she is very brusque when it comes to monuments, especially those marking empires. Monuments that pay homage to conquering, great men and their armies are often dismissed abruptly. Zohra accompanies her on her touristic trips in Delhi: “She both humanized and dramatized for me the great monumental edifices which would otherwise have been only heaps of stones more or less artistically arranged. ” Indeed in the next chapter, which is devoted in its entirety to monuments, the reader becomes well-acquainted with her disdain for “heaps of stone. ” She finds palaces oppressive “with or without royalty in them. ” It is again the gardens, the symbol of female space and fertility, that catch her eye. When visiting an old fort, she is enthralled when they suddenly find themselves “in the lovely gardens. ” She is not even particularly impressed by the Taj Mahal. Her comment is, “The supreme irony for the Westerner is that it was a Muslem who erected this eternal monument to woman! ” Regarding British architecture her comment is that no one will ever come to India to see the architectural remains of British rule. Their contribution would be found elsewhere.

Gandhi and the two women who are closest to him introduce her to new masculinities and femininities. In the next three chapters, which are devoted to her meeting with Gandhi, the trio around him and his activities, she expresses her admiration for a different type of leadership and masculinity. Mahatma Gandhi offers a “third way,” one that is perhaps neither maternal nor paternal. This is a man whom women in purdah meet and allow into their apartments. His is a movement that is not centered on leaving behind monuments but on improving the circumstances of the poor. Halide Edib describes the reverence and the love for Gandhi. At least so it seemed to me from where I was.

Inside India was published in 1937 after Edib had spent twelve years in exile and seven years after she had published The Turkish Ordeal. The Halide Edib who travels to India is a mature woman over the age of fifty. Her voice is confident and scholarly. In her memoirs we have a steady progression from the domestic to the public, from the maternal to the paternal, from over-identifying with the maternal to over-identifying with the paternal. The Halide Edib who wrote Inside India, at least as she represents herself, is a woman who was able to synthesize the semiotic and symbolic without becoming an extremist. She has made peace with her mother and she has risen to the stature of the father in the symbolic not by rejecting her mother but rather by making peace with her. If she found surrogate mothers in Anatolia, in India she finds surrogate daughters.

Halide Edib’s Memoirs and The Turkish Ordeal simply begin on page one. Neither book has a preface or an introduction. The reader has to get through several layers before reaching the narrative Inside India. Halide Edib frames Inside India with a preface and an introduction. The author is concerned about the reader’s interpretation of information she provides. In the preface, Edib frames for us her gaze of whose limitations she is well aware: “The conclusions I have reached may not be right. What I say about India need not be the truth as the Indians themselves see it, but it is the truth as I see and believe. ” Mary Louise Pratt argues convincingly in Imperial Eyes: Travel Writing and Transculturation that travel books written by Europeans about non-Europeans created the “imperial” order at home. Pratt’s work explores the contribution of travel books, even seemingly innocent ones such as the intersection of Linneaus’ travel writing and plant classification system and formations of subjectivities, in light of imperial projects. Inside India allows us to examine how a non-European traveler negotiates travel and the formation of subjectivity in the absence of an imperial project. Halide Edib is not part of a foreign imperial conquering race that has come to experience an exotic land and she is not a male. She is forthright about what she knows about India and how it might impact her gaze. Halide Edib as an older Muslim woman has access to women in purdah and she often stays in the women’s section of households that continue to practice purdah, but she does not exoticize purdah or dwell on it. The occult only merits a passing sentence. She is invited to participate in an event involving the occult and she declines to do so.

In the introduction Halide Edib tells us about all her encounters with India and Indians preceding her arrival in India. She has met India in the fantastic tales of her childhood and the stories of her English governess. She has met Indians who came to help the Ottoman armies returning from devastating wars. She has met Indian soldiers who came to the Ottoman Empire as part of the British armies. She has encountered many contrasting Indias and Indians. They do not form a coherent image.

The title of the book itself, Inside India, suggests many different possibilities. Indeed the first section of the book is titled “India through Dr. Ansari’s house. ” However, Dr. Ansari’s home is not simply a domestic space. His home functions as a bridge between the inside and outside and between people of different political persuasions, races, genders, and nationalities. Gandhi and Lord Irwin have had meetings in this home. The shadow cabinet has met here. East and West have met in the drawing room of this house. Edib meets well-known women and politically active women from East and West here. But even this house has its secluded areas and as an older Muslim woman Halide Edib belongs to a small minority that has access to the apartments of Begam Ansari who chooses to maintain purdah. The only man Begam Ansari sees other than her relatives is Gandhi. Halide Edib identifies with Begam Ansari and her adopted daughter Zohra. The author respects Begam Ansari’s choice to remain in purdah and not to stand in the way of Zohra’s emancipation. Halide Edib envies Zohra and Begam Ansari’s relationship. The author finds that Zohra with one foot in the past and the other in the future is facing the same difficulties that she faced as a young woman but that, unlike herself, Zohra has a mother to guide her through this difficult stage. Edib’s admiration for what she perceives as the flexibility of Indian Muslims with regard to women’s position is evident throughout the book. She appreciates the fact that women are allowed to decide for themselves whether they should remain in purdah or not. Halide Edib comments on the top-down modernization effort in the Republic of Turkey, which included clothing reform by banning veiling and scarves in Turkey. It is in Chapter Three that she makes her thoughts on women in India clear and, in an interesting way, she also comments on women that Kristeva might have classified as having overly identified with the paternal.

The chapter titled “Sorojini Naidu and Other Indian Women” captures her thoughts on women’s emancipation and the condition of women in India, which are reemphasized throughout the book with her comments about encounters with women and women’s clubs. In Salam House there are two other women guests; one of them is Sarojini Naidu, “the foremost Indian woman of the present day, the best known Eastern woman in politics. ” In many ways, based on the description of Naidu provided by men, Naidu is the Kristevan revolutionary woman who is more fanatic than any man, the woman who has over-identified with the paternal. The male head of the Chicago Forum says to Edib: “I always believed India to have a meek and submissive spirit, but Mrs. Naidu upset my notion. ” Edib takes the time to point out that this woman has many dimensions and moods. The Mrs. Naidu Edib describes is a well-rounded person and what he has seen is only one dimension. To Halide Edib she is a woman of many moods, sometimes cruel, sometimes tender; aggressive in pursuit of nationalism and in expressing it and yet capable of a universality of spirit, a comprehension of humanity. Indian men call her Akka, older sister. Perhaps the question should be whether the flaw is in the way she is being perceived by the head of the Chicago Forum. Is Mrs. Naidu perceived as being overly strident because she does not adhere to his stereotypes about India and Indian women? Through Mrs. Naidu, Halide Edib meets many other women of all castes, religions, and ethnicities in the Ansari drawing room. She meets nationalists, reformers, teachers, and students. She is delighted that women of different backgrounds can come together. She is impressed with Begam Mohammad Ali, who “will not be hustled. She wants change, but in her own good time. ” Halide Edib also met with the Purdah Club. She is brutal with them, not about Purdah but about being good citizens and doing good for their community: “What do you mean I thought by dressing so beautifully and sitting idle instead of helping, working, teaching. … And all this costly food. … Why, they could calculate the weekly cost, and spend it on providing meals for the poorer students of Jamia.

Although Halide Edib may have placed herself firmly in the symbolic in this book, she also valorizes female space in it. That Halide Edib has made peace with the maternal and female space is evident on many levels in Chapter One and emphasized throughout the rest of the book. In the first section of Inside India, Halide Edib delights in describing the gardens, the animals, and the people she encounters but she is very brusque when it comes to monuments, especially those marking empires. Monuments that pay homage to conquering, great men and their armies are often dismissed abruptly. Zohra accompanies her on her touristic trips in Delhi: “She both humanized and dramatized for me the great monumental edifices which would otherwise have been only heaps of stones more or less artistically arranged. ” Indeed in the next chapter, which is devoted in its entirety to monuments, the reader becomes well-acquainted with her disdain for “heaps of stone. ” She finds palaces oppressive “with or without royalty in them. ” It is again the gardens, the symbol of female space and fertility, that catch her eye. When visiting an old fort, she is enthralled when they suddenly find themselves “in the lovely gardens. ” She is not even particularly impressed by the Taj Mahal. Her comment is, “The supreme irony for the Westerner is that it was a Muslem who erected this eternal monument to woman! ” Regarding British architecture her comment is that no one will ever come to India to see the architectural remains of British rule. Their contribution would be found elsewhere.

Gandhi and the two women who are closest to him introduce her to new masculinities and femininities. In the next three chapters, which are devoted to her meeting with Gandhi, the trio around him and his activities, she expresses her admiration for a different type of leadership and masculinity. Mahatma Gandhi offers a “third way,” one that is perhaps neither maternal nor paternal. This is a man whom women in purdah meet and allow into their apartments. His is a movement that is not centered on leaving behind monuments but on improving the circumstances of the poor. Halide Edib describes the reverence and the love for Gandhi. At least so it seemed to me from where I was.

Gandhi and the women around him have given up worldly pleasures. This is an asexual masculinity but still there is a gender delineation. Quite simply he has a name whereas the two women are “sister,” and they serve his needs. We come across the Kristevan archetypes in Halide Edib’s descriptions of Gandhi’s wife, Sister Kasturba, who is no longer his wife, and his adopted daughter, Sister Miraben. They are both titled “sister,” which changes their relationship to one another as well as to Gandhi. While the author describes them in and of themselves and in relation to Gandhi, she does not comment on the relationship between Sister Kasturba and Sister Miraben. In Sister Kasturba’s description we find “the revolutionary woman. ” She is described as more “Gandhi than Gandhi himself. ” Halide Edib does not chide her for this; in fact, she contextualizes Sister Kasturba by describing her life and what Gandhi’s politics has meant for her as a wife and a woman. Sister Miraben, on the other hand, is another “daughter,” she has not risen to Gandhi’s position but, according to Halide Edib, she is a “great woman,” who has given up herself for a different cause and taken on a new identity. And yet there are questions about whether this upper-class British woman has really been accepted or not. Sister Miraben complicates the Kristevan scheme because she has not chosen to stay in her own frame. She has aligned herself with another “father. ” She cannot be accused of being a strident revolutionary at home because she has left home. Symbolically, Sister Miraben has rejected her own maternal and paternal path. She has created her own route. By assuming the right as an individual to determine her own fate she has chosen to enter the symbolic but she has not become a “revolutionary woman,” as postulated by Kristeva’s theory.

Halide Edib introduces us to different types of men and intellectuals in the following two chapters, which describe the university (Jamia Millia Islamia) or the Jamia men and their ideas. She is well received even if at times challenged and questioned by her audience. That she is firmly in the symbolic and that she has assumed the same rights as the father are obvious. Her lectures are attended by significant intellectuals and political figures. She is not treated as an honorary male but simply as an important intellectual. She reflects on the political and social landscape in India and she is deeply concerned about the potential religious conflicts. She wants to see an India that is united and not torn apart by religious conflict.

Halide Edib’s comments on India are reflective of her sentiments on what has been taking place in Turkey since independence. Religion was strictly controlled by the state after the Republic was established. Religious institutions were stripped of their financial resources and power base. Halide Edib argues for balance in society and the necessity for religion and science to coexist. She also argues that women should not be rushed into change or forced into it. She argues that education is important and should be emphasized for men and women. Halide Edib illustrates her point regarding the importance of women and education by describing a scene in which the laying of the foundation stone of the new Jamia building is taking place. Halide Edib is observing the masses, which include school children. The youngest child is to lay the foundation stone. School children are watching. First they are well behaved but then they start getting fidgety. The teachers who sit among them don’t do anything: “A little girl of seven restored order. She was a puny creature with sharp black eyes. Her eyes glared, and certain ribs felt her sharp elbows stuck into them. There was no more fidgeting. She seemed to me a symbol of the modern Indian woman, asserting her rights by proving her ability to make her men behave. ” The little girl acts, whereas the adults are given to apathy. At the same time this little girl, who is more concerned with imposing order than the adults, is perhaps a good example of the female who over-identifies with the paternal.

The second section of the book is titled “India Seen on Highways and Byways”. In this section, Halide Edib is travelling in the parts of India that have a significant Muslim population. This is a travel narrative within a travel narrative. Each chapter is named after the city she is visiting. Again it is not the great historically important places that catch her attention, but rather the gardens and the people and their ideas that are of significance for her.

In this section she is not based in a single home and when visiting homes she often finds herself eating with the men. In Aligarh she comments that the Muslim University has produced men who look modern on the surface but are mostly fanatical and stagnant in mind. Again she could well be describing her fears for her home country where modernization from above may be producing citizens and leaders who look modern but who have not internalized democratic values. She warns that both Hindu and Muslim should consider religion seriously. She is concerned about the two communities’ ability to coexist once the unifying enemy, the colonizer, has left.

Halide Edib’s descriptions of her encounters with women in Lahore remind the reader of her sentiments on women as peacemakers in her earlier works. Here again the reader senses her appreciation of the Indian approach to women’s emancipation. In Lahore, where she is welcomed by thousands, she is the guest of a rich landowner in whose house strict purdah is practiced. She eats only one meal with the women in strict purdah but she makes much time for them. Begam Shah Nawaz is her hostess and takes her to visit a college for young women in purdah. At a party by a women’s club or clubs she writes, “once more I thought how much better women all over the world understood each other than men. ” About the harems in the purdah homes she writes:One saw three definite generations with three definite thoughts and ways of life. Grandmothers, entirely old-fashioned; mothers, though still absorbed in their homes, yet interested in women’s education and proud of their English-speaking daughters who were out of Purdah; such daughters who were entirely emancipated. Fiction written by Halide Edib often includes characters who are hypocrites or charlatans who fool innocent people by claiming religious authority. In Lahore she is shocked and horrified when she discovers that Muslim women are denied the right to inherit by their own community, which has adopted Hindu inheritance laws. In her speech here she harangues her listeners and deals with the hecklers. In Lahore she finds a surrogate daughter when she dines in the house of a doctor, a member of the Association which invited her to Lahore. After dinner he brings her a “precious bundle” and asks her to name his seven-day-old daughter Halide: “That miniature creature in green silk has moved me almost to tears, and in a strange way tied me to Lahore. For whatever happens in that city the destiny of a human being called Halide will be affected by it".

Again her disdain for armies and war shines through when she is taken to the Khyber Pass. She has no interest in such places but more of an interest in people and the impact of various armies and civilizations on people. ’ I asked. ‘A handsome ancestor in the army of Alexander the Great,’ was the answer".

It is also in this chapter that she makes a reference that suggests that she went through the Kristevan revolutionary woman phase. She tells us in commenting on an ascetic that:I want to digress and confess to an incurable weakness for extreme puritanism, even for asceticism. Yet I know that they often lead to hypocrisy and intolerance in the first instance; and to self-righteousness, or withdrawal of the best moral element from human intercourse in the second. Her fiction works are peppered with such characters both male and female. For example, Rabia’s mother and grandfather in The Clown and His Daughter are both deeply religious and terribly intolerant, self-righteous, and unpleasant.

In Lucknow she finds much to admire and much to despair about. Once again in this city, which is admired for its beautiful women, she finds lovely gardens and orchards. She admires Begam Wasim’s housekeeping and is in awe of the camaraderie and respect among mother and children in this house. But it is the trip outside of Lucknow that brings despair and trepidation for the future of India. Here she witnesses extreme poverty. Here she sees what Gandhi is fighting against. She realizes that “95 per cent of India is semi-starving in order to keep the 5 per cent middle-class, rulers, or whatever else they may be".

Her stay in a Hindu home in Benares is equally felicitous and again takes her to a garden that brings her back to her childhood with her grandmother: “The moment I crossed the gate I was in the garden of my childhood. Whether it was a trick of memory or a reality, the trees were all acacias, the trellises were wisteria, the flowers the same as my grandmother grew in her garden at Beshiktash. ” She encounters Hindu, Muslim, and the remnants of Buddhist Benares. She is again wondering how it is that Hinduism drove out Buddhism and assimilated everything but Islam. This for her is a topic that India must deal with in order to have a promising future.

The temple of Kali, which she visits while staying in Calcutta, is the one monument she comments on extensively. Significantly, Kali is a female deity. She is the goddess of destruction and death. As Halide Edib describes her, however, she is the Kristevan revolutionary woman who is dominated by the brain without the heart and who follows orders heartlessly or science without religion or ethics. She is the paternal taken to the extreme:For the adherents of every religion, alas, have an unnamed Kali in their hearts. Destruction is as much an instinct as love in the human heart. The question is whether the divine commandment of every religion which says ‘Thou shalt not kill…’ or the man-interpreted precept which says, ‘Thou shalt kill…’ is going to prevail in the end. Kali is the domination of the brain without the heart.

Hyderabad demonstrates for her clearly the difficulties India will face in nation building. She visits an orphanage where the children cannot eat together. Out of respect for the Hindus the majority Muslim population in Hyderabad is intent on showing that the Hindu children’s dietary laws are being followed. Halide Edib warns that this situation may create complications for the future. Another incident that takes place in Hyderabad demonstrates that Halide Edib has moved out of the extremist position regarding the Ottoman dynasty. Her hostess Lady Amina’s dear friend turns out to be the Ottoman princess whose family Halide Edib helped oust from Turkey. ” The princess is a much loved reformer who has never lived in purdah. She exemplifies everything that the republican government declared it wanted the modern Turkish woman to be, namely, educated, intelligent, chaste, and devoted to service.

The trip is complete with the return to Bombay and a description of a woman singer whose song about the motherland reduces Halide to tears. The sight and thought of women of all backgrounds fighting for the independence of India reminds her of the Turkish struggle for independence. Is it the thought that she does not have a homeland to which to return after the struggle and suffering that saddens her?

Halide Edib’s remarkable and informative travel narrative which clearly demonstrates that she has claimed her place in the symbolic ends rather abruptly. Indeed her next monumental trip would be her return to Istanbul on March 6, 1939.

Works Cited

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